Toronto (/trnto/, local/trno/) is the most populous city in Canada, and the capital of the province of Ontario. In 2011, Toronto had a population of 2,615,060, making it the fourth most populous city in North America, after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada, with 5,583,064 people living in the census metropolitan area as of 2011. Classified as an alpha world city by the GaWC, Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture. The history of Toronto began in the late 18th century when the British Crownpurchased its land from the Mississaugas of the New Credit. The settlement established there became York, which lieutenant governorJohn Graves Simcoe designated as the capital of the Crown colony of Upper Canada. The city was ransacked in the Battle of York during the War of 1812. In 1834, York was incorporated and renamed Toronto. The city was severely damaged in two huge fires, in 1849 and 1904. Toronto has occasionally expanded its borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities, a process that has left the city with clearly defined neighbourhoods that have retained their distinctive nature. This has earned it the nickname "City of Neighbourhoods".[a] Located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario, Toronto sits on a broad sloping plateau cut by an extensive network of rivers, ravines, and urban forest. The city is the anchor of the densely populated region surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe. The cosmopolitan and multicultural population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. It is one of the worlds most diverse cities, with about 50% of residents having been born outside of Canada, and over 200 distinct ethnic origins represented among its population. While English is the primary language spoken by the majority of Torontonians, there are over 140 different languages spoken in the city. As Canada's commercial capital, the city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations. The economy of Toronto is highly diversified, with leading sectors including technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, film and television, music, fashion, media, environmental innovation, business services, research, transportation and logistics, publishing, food services, and tourism. Toronto is placed among the Global Leaders in the Global Financial Centres Index, and is also consistently rated as one of the world's most liveable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit and the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.